Vocational training key to Germany’s economic success德国职业教育的成功

[vc_row type=”in_container” scene_position=”center” text_color=”dark” text_align=”left” overlay_strength=”0.3″][vc_column column_padding=”no-extra-padding” column_padding_position=”all” background_color_opacity=”1″ background_hover_color_opacity=”1″ width=”1/2″][vc_column_text]Vocational training key to Germany’s economic success

If you have noticed, even as economic crises shakes up the entire Eurozone, Germany’s manufacturing and export industry remain stedfast as a powerhouse. This is highly intriguing.
More impressively, amidst the sovereign debt crisis, regardless of how high the overall unemployment rate is, youth unemployment remains below 8% at all times. In Spain and Italy, youth unemployment rate hover at 56% and 38%. All over Europe, it is common to see youth unemployment twice as high as the national average.
I was fascinated with this, so I did some reading. I came to understand that the low youth unemployment rates in Germany is due to their dual vocational training system. It is a system that many other European nations are trying to emulate and learn from.

How does the system work? There are two ways. The first one has students spend one or two days in school acquiring theoretical knowledge about their specialisation. The rest of the time will be spent at a company, where students get to apply their newly acquired knowledge, for example by learning to operate machinery. The second way puts more emphasis on school syllabus, which is then complemented with real world experiences. This method primarily serves career options in the service industry, such as nursing and teaching.

As university graduates all over the world struggle with unemployment, Germany’s vocational training system stands as a gigantic pillar holding up the economy. It solves problems that the conventional education system cannot solve, and puts more emphasis on application of skills rather than theoretical knowledge. It ensures that students are fully in touch with what the industry needs.

You may wonder: isn’t vocational training for people who are considered failures by the conventional education system?

Many may think that way in Malaysia. To us, vocational training is the less favourable option, only for people who do not make it to university. This is not the case in Germany—people who opt for vocational training are not looked down upon because the government has long integrated vocational training into the mainstream education system. About two-thirds of youths choose to enter vocational training every year, as opposed to one-third who chooses university.

People who choose vocational training do it for many reasons: some out of passion for technical service, some with the intention to discover their real interest, and some because they do not qualify for university.
Today, many equate graduation to unemployment. This does not happen in Germany, because many students have already decided on a vocation after high school and are equipped for the workplace. The vocational training system ensures that students are immediately employable, and companies often choose to retain these students as permanent staff after their training. This also benefits companies as it saves them time and resources in the recruitment process.
Let’s look at unemployment in Malaysia.

The Department of Statistics Malaysia tells us that unemployment rate among people aged 20-24 makes up 8.8% of total unemployed citizens. This is much worse than people aged 25 and above.
To address the problem of youth unemployment, the government has also proposed integrating vocational training into mainstream education. The purpose is to equip youths with a skill, increase their competitiveness and improve employability.

Unfortunately, many Malaysians see vocational training as their last resort, and always seek to enter university at all cost. Even the Philippines has realised that vocational training is the only solution for youth unemployment, and has made policies accordingly.

Research also shows that vocational education not only helps fulfil market demands, it also helps increase the supply of skilled labour in the nation. This ultimately pushes us one step closer to the 2020 Vision.

It is worth noting that the government recognises that our current vocational training system is not enough to cater to the needs of students. For this reason, I believe the government should research into providing a solution. With the effort from the government and cooperation from companies, we can definitely devise better strategies to train our youths, increase their competitiveness and reduce youth unemployment.

I believe in giving back to society, just as we have benefited from it. Corporations should seek to help our youths in developing their skills. Our young people are the future, and we should put more emphasis on properly maximising their talents. When their abilities are harnessed, we can expect a new generation that can provide us solutions to societies problems.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][vc_column column_padding=”no-extra-padding” column_padding_position=”all” background_color_opacity=”1″ background_hover_color_opacity=”1″ width=”1/2″][vc_column_text]德国经济傲视欧美 关键:职业教育的成功

不晓得各位可曾注意,不管德国的经济成长率有多低,它的制造业的竞争力与出口总额总是名列世界前茅,这样的情况让许多人百思不解,包括我自己。

更令人惊叹是,在欧债危机之后,无论德国的总体失业率有多高,其青年失业率竟然都低于8%,而西班牙和意大利却各自有56%和38%,欧美各国超过20%的失业率甚至青年失业率是平均失业率的两倍,更被视为是普遍之事。

我非常好奇,于是翻看了一些书籍以及资料,才明白德国的青年失业率之所以如此低,皆因德国实施双轨制职业教育。而德国成功的职业教育管理,让许多欧美国家争相跟德国签订备忘录,向德国的职业教育取经。

德国职业教育以双轨制职训为主:一、学生制主要在制造业或少数服务业学习技能,学校的课程是补足性,学生每周有三四天在企业接受学徒制专业技术教育,约一天半在学校学习理论课程。二、以学校课程为主,辅以业界的实习,主要培训服务业人才,例如护士、幼教老师、老师、医疗助理。

在全球的大学毕业生都面临供过于求以及学非所需的困境,德国的双轨制职业教育是撑起经济的最大武器,它解决了普通高等教育所无法解决的问题,着重针对性与实用性,相较于大学重视理论,职业教育更注重学生的实践能力,让学生明白企业需要什么样的人才。

你或许不解,职业教育不是读不成书的人的出路吗?

在马来西亚或许有些人会有这样的想法,认为就读职业教育的人应该都是考不上大学的人。但在德国,没有人会有这样的想法,甚至不会轻视这些选择职训的人,因为政府早将职业教育纳入主流教育,而每年只有三分之一左右的年轻人选择念大学,另外三分之二的年轻人选择就读职业教育。

选择职业教育的人,有的是单纯喜欢技术、有些人因为毕业时不知该选哪个大学专业而选择职业教育来测试自己喜不喜欢该行业、自己有些人则是因为学分不足以上大学,于是他们决定考取专业证照。

有一句话叫做,大学生毕业就是失业,在德国比较不会遇上这样的情况,因为大部分的年轻人早已在中学毕业后就选择职训,学得实际的一技之长,不怕找不到工作。而企业参与职训,不仅让学生能够在实习完毕后能“学以致用”,考取证照后更有机会留在企业成为正式员工,也因为企业从头到尾参与职训,培训和考试的内容都是与该企业相关的,企业因此也能获得优秀人才,更省下了聘请新人的栽培费用与时间。

换个焦点,我们来看看大马青年失业率的情况。

根据国家统计局(Department of Statistics Malaysia)的数据显示,年龄介于20至24岁的群体占据了大马总失业率的8.8%,失业问题比25岁以上的群体来得更严重。

为了解决大马青年的失业率, 大马政改研究所也曾主张把职业教育纳入主流教育,让极具潜能的年轻人能透过职训装备自己,提升自身的竞争力,以便能找到工作发挥所长,而无需将时间浪费在求职的困境中。

很可惜的是,许多大马人都将技职教育看成是读不成书的“下下策”选择,上大学似乎是唯一出路,所以职业教育才无法跻身主流教育,就连菲律宾也领悟到职训为青年失业的出路,而重新推广职业教育。

政改研究所也强调,职业教育不单是迎合市场需求,更重要的是与学术教育相辅相成,为国家生产和培育更多技术纯熟的劳力资源,推动国家迈向逼在眉睫的2020宏愿。

值得一提的是,政府也承认,大马目前的职业教育并不能满足学生需求,有鉴于此,我认为政府应该研究一个合适的配套方案,重新推动职业教育,若政府广邀企业一起研究职业教育的方针,在政商合作之下,绝对能创造青年竞争力、企业获人才与解决青年失业率的三赢局面。

取之社会,回馈社会,企业也能在提升青年竞争力方面助一臂之力,我深知青年人是生力军,尤其是要解决国家目前的各种经济以及社会发展的困境,“人尽其才,物尽其用”才是王道。

资料参考:

https://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2014/i14-502.pdf

http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21578656-germanys-vaunted-dual-education-system-its-latest-export-hit-ein-neuer-deal

https://www.malaysiakini.com/bulletin/256246

http://dapmalaysia.org/cn/statements/2013/06/17/5190/

http://www.alternet.org/story/156113/the_truth_about_why_german_elites_view_southern_europeans_as_inferior_and_falsely_judge_history

http://www.npr.org/2012/04/04/149927290/the-secret-to-germanys-low-youth-unemployment%20[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

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